AutoHotkey Object-Oriented Notation for Associative Arrays (A Short Intro)

Special Object-Oriented Syntax Makes It Easier to Retrieve Array Data

I hesitate to discuss Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) in AutoHotkey. I haven’t work with it enough to provide the insight I would like when addressing a topic. When reading online tutorials, I have a tough enough time understanding the explanations. I have yet to see a tutorial that makes it simple. So, I concentrate on the pieces that get results right now without going too much into the weeds.

From what I’ve read, OOP acts as the de facto standard for professional programmers—not without controversy (“Object-Oriented Programming Is Bad?“). They say that the planning and organization which comes with using OOP makes life easier for multiple people toiling on large projects. While this approach to programming may work for large projects, it does not necessarily make life easier for short apps such as most AutoHotkey scripts.

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AutoHotkey Quick Tip: Conditional Hotstrings Using the Input Command

Sometimes the Input Command Solves a Sticky Hotstring Problem

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I promised an associative array tutorial for my next blog, but this topic intervened. I should have the tutorial ready for next Monday.

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Recent comment on my blog “Auto-Capitalize the First Letter of Sentences“:

This routine can be handy, though the main issue is that, in AHK, “if more than one hotstring matches something you type, only the one listed first in the script will take effect”. Actually, I’m not sure about that, as it appears that using the asterisk as a hotstring option takes precedence. In any case, this does seem to have the effect that other hotstrings that could otherwise be used cannot be used if they also match the code provided here. I have lots of those types of hotstrings, which I use on new lines and after punctuation. I have been unable to find any solutions to this since AHK does not accommodate sequential firing.

A short demo:


Run this script. Type “Tn” on a new line. It works to type “Thanks”. Now type “tn” on a new line. The first line in the script is now skipped. You see only “Tn” in response.

Comment On “AutoHotkey Tip of the Week: Auto-Capitalize the First Letter of Sentences” by mikeyww

Whenever a Hotstring fires, it resets and waits for the next Hotstring. Therefore, the firing of the new line character and “t” (`nt) removes the letter “t” from the next string and starts over with the “n” character. The asterisk option (*) does not affect this behavior. It merely causes that Hotstring to fire before the first—then reset—prior to pressing the “n” key. However, I do appreciate the problem.

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Track Graphic Line Measurement Segments Using AutoHotkey Arrays

When Refreshing the MouseMeasure.ahk Invisible GUI Graphics Layer, AutoHotkey Uses a Simple Array of Associative Arrays to Track the Data

In my last blog (“Measure Multiple Line Segments with an AutoHotkey On-Screen Ruler“), I introduced multi-segment lines for estimating distances of non-linear routes. When refreshing the graphics to animate the moving line, all previously fixed segments need redrawing. Objects-based arrays provide the best method for tracking and regenerating these lines.

Each leg of the journey corresponds to a simple array element containing an associative array of data. The white box displays the key:value data saved in MyArray[4].

The difference between pseudo-arrays, simple arrays, and associative arrays can get confusing. For the novice AutoHotkey scriptwriter, unfamiliar Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) notation can make understanding the code even more difficult—especially if you attempt to learn OOP from online documentation.

You may think you need to choose between the traditional AutoHotkey syntax and OOP coding, but you don’t! AutoHotkey allows you to mix-and-match most OOP and classic AutoHotkey syntax—as long as you understand how they integrate.

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Measure Multiple Line Segments with an AutoHotkey On-Screen Ruler

Taking the MouseMeasure.ahk Script to the Next Level, We Add Multiple Calculations for Going Around Corners

The original MouseMeasure.ahk script captures a single-length in a straight line—as a crow flies. While this works great for many applications, roads and highways generally wind over travel distances. Depending upon where you’re going, this can cause a significant variation in the total calculation. To return a more accurate overall estimate, we must break the measurement line into shorter segments.

Start the measurement with the Ctrl+LButton Hotkey, then click the left mouse button for each new leg of the journey. Press the Shift key to terminate the last leg and display the total distance.

The original form of the MouseMeasure.ahk script only allows for a sole straight line. To add more legs to our journey (at different angles), we must implement AutoHotkey techniques for:

  1. Terminating one segment and starting a new one.
  2. Tracking the position of each segment, its length, and the total distance traveled.
  3. Refreshing the screen to include all past legs as well as the new leg.
  4. Sending multiple saved data items for each leg to documents and forms.
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Pass-Through Hotkey Combinations to Prevent Shortcut Blocking (AutoHotkey Tip)

Sometimes You Want AutoHotkey Hotkeys to Block Other Program Shortcuts While Other Times You Want Both to Work

One of the effects of AutoHotkey Hotkeys includes blocking action for key combinations in Windows and other programs. While often desirable, occasionally you want both the Hotkey and the program shortcut to work. To do this we put a squiggle (tilde prefix ~) in front of the Hotkey combination.

In the MouseMeasure.ahk app, use the cursor keys (Right, Left, Up, Down) to move the mouse cursor one pixel at a time for accurate placement of both ends of the graphic measurement line. Delete to clear the line and ToolTip.

When I added the Arrow keys to the MouseMeasure.ahk script as Hotkeys for precisely locating the mouse cursor onscreen, it triggered the undesirable side effect of blocking the text cursor movement associated with those same keys in editing screens. By placing a tilde (~) in front of each Hotkey, I can accomplish both accurate mouse cursor placement in the invisible GUI and continue using text cursor movement in an editing window without disabling or closing the MouseMeasure.ahk app. (See “Replace Hotkeys with the AutoHotkey GetKeyState() Function” for an introduction to the GDIPlus version of the script. See “How to Draw Lines with AutoHotkey Using Windows GDIPlus Graphics” for information on the GDIPlus functions used in the script.)

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